Feline Obesity and Weight Management ( Dr. Blair)



Did you know?
The average domestic cat should ideally weigh approximately 8 to 10 pounds.  However, more than 50% of household cats in the US are obese or overweight.  The feline obesity epidemic is a major concern among veterinarians today, and should be to anyone with a feline companion. As little as 2 pounds of excess body weight can put cats at an up to 3 times increased risk for development of Type II diabetes, heart disease, arthritis,  joint injuries, urinary tract disease, and overall lower immune system function. Obese cats have a significantly shorter lifespan when compared to cats at an optimum weight.

Why are so many household cats obese?
Our feline companions enjoy a life of leisure with all of their daily necessities provided by humans and have evolved to take advantage of a sedentary lifestyle. However, domestic cats are only a few generations from their wild counterparts with whom they share many genetic, physical, and behavioral components.  Feeding behavior is highly similar to wild cats that consume 10 – 20 small meals throughout the day and night while spending many hours actively hunting.  Domestic cats fed ad libitum (“free choice”) also consume frequent small meals throughout the day, but need only to take a few steps to the food bowl to obtain them.  Instinctive hunting behaviors remain but are exhibited as playing, stalking and bouts of “friskiness,” and rarely last longer than an hour each day.

Spaying/Neutering is a common and highly recommended procedure that is integral to population control and significantly reduces behavioral problems in household cats.  However, spayed and neutered cats have significantly lower (24-33%) daily energy requirements due to a decrease in their basal metabolic rate. But since their appetite is frequently unaffected it results in consumption of excess calories which are converted to fat. Male cats appear to be at a higher risk for obesity subsequent to castration when compared to spayed female cats.

Lastly, most commercial cat foods are formulated to be highly palatable because, let’s face it, you’re going to buy more of the food your cats like!  Fat has long been known to be the best way to enhance palatability, and is added to many commercial diets for this purpose.

The evolution of the human-animal bond with our cats is wrought with good intentions.  We provide our companions with all the luxuries they need, including an unlimited supply of their favorite foods.  We’ve done everything in our power to make our cats as happy as they make us, with one unintended consequence: a predisposition to obesity.

Goals of Feline Weight Loss and Healthy Weight Management

Healthy weight maintenance is the first step in safeguarding your cat’s health.  Together with advice from your veterinarian, follow these steps to design an individualized plan for your cat.

  •     Determine the ideal body weight for your cat
  •     Dietary management
  •     Exercise
  •     Understand how to maintain the ideal body weight

Step 1. Determine the ideal body weight for your cat

Do this with the help of your veterinarian. This chart shows how your veterinarian calculates your cat’s body condition score (BCS) on a scale of 1 (too thin) to 5 (obese).
Hills Pet Food has a website with a helpful guide to assess if your cat is overweight:

Step 2: Dietary Management
Your veterinarian can help you to determine the optimum diet for your cat’s needs and determine how many kilocalories (kcal) per day to feed to maintain an ideal body weight.
Cats should never be put on a diet without veterinary supervision
Many cats are finicky, but if a cat does not eat for 2 consecutive days it can develop life-threatening hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver syndrome)
Feed frequent small meals throughout the day.  If this is not possible, feed a minimum of 2 meals per day.
Rechecks are critical!
Ideally your cat should be weighed once a month to assess if your weight loss plan is working.

How long will it take?

Healthy weight loss in cats should not exceed 1 – 2% of their body weight per week. Most cats will achieve their ideal weight within 6 – 8 months.

Step 3: Exercise
Exercise is not natural for cats like it is in dogs. Cats do not have any instinctive desire to exercise because they spend most of their day actively hunting for food in the wild. Therefore, it is up to you to make sure your cat gets at least 15-20 minutes of exercise each day. This can easily be accomplished using toys, laser pointers, and various other forms of environmental enrichment.
Treat balls are a great way to give your cat mental and physical stimulation.

Step 4: Understand how to maintain the ideal body weight
Involve everyone in the household
Keep your cat active with playtimes and stimulation
Regular veterinary examinations and re-checks
Consult with your veterinarian as needed with any questions or concerns about your cat’s health.



Cori Blair DVM

Rabbit and Guinea Pig Abscesses ( Dr. Gottleib)

Here at Ocean County Veterinary Hospital Group (OCVH) we find that one of the most frustrating problems for rabbit and guinea pig owners is when a seemingly healthy pet develops an abscess – a pocket of infection and pus. Underlying dental disease is the most common reason these abscesses form. An abnormal tooth or malformation of the mouth will frequently lead to abscesses. Rabbit and guinea pig teeth continue to grow throughout the animal’s entire life, so it is important that they always have hay available. Chewing hay helps keep their teeth properly ground down. Unfortunately, genetics also plays a role, so even with a proper diet, acquired dental disease and abscesses are not always preventable.

            There are some other ways for abscesses to occur in rabbits and guinea pigs. Trauma is a frequent underlying cause. This can be anything from a fall to a sharp piece of a cage abrading or puncturing the feet or body. And abscesses can occur anywhere in the body if the infection enters the blood stream and lymphatic system. Untreated, these lesions will many times be fatal.

 Recently, a little guinea pig named Jack came to visit us at OCVH.. Jack, a 10-month old male, presented for two swellings under his chin. Upon examination, we found that the swellings were actually abscessed lymph nodes. We immediately took him to surgery to lance and drain the infected lesions. He recovered well and was placed on oral antibiotics to help fight the infection. With many guinea pigs and rabbits this relatively minor procedure alone is enough to cure the problem.  Unfortunately, recurrence is not uncommon due to the huge load of bacteria in the system and other complicating factors.

              Jack did happen to have a recurrence of the swellings about 2 weeks later. This time we needed to perform a more complex procedure to remove Jack’s lymph nodes “en bloc”- which means to completely cut out all of the infected lymph node intact. The surgical sites were packed with a blend of antibiotics and other natural ingredients to promote healing.  Jack continued to take antibiotics and his owners were instructed how to flush the areas to keep them clean and promote healing. Jack did very well following this procedure, but unfortunately recurrence is still possible.

            Early detection is the key to a successful outcome for these types of cases.  By recognizing abscesses early we can remove small pockets of infection before they spread or become more invasive. It gives us the best chance at avoiding recurrence and reducing the pet’s discomfort. For this reason regular visits with your guinea pig and rabbit companions are highly recommended. During the examination, we can get a clear view of your pet’s teeth and oral cavity, as well as palpate for the presence of any abscesses that may be cropping up. We can also trim or file overgrown teeth before they cause pain or abscesses to form.


 So remember, lots of hay, careful observation and rapid intervention whenever you suspect a problem.

Thanks for entrusting us with the care of your rabbit and guinea pig family members!

Dr. Gottlieb

“My Pet Is In Pain. Can I Just Use….” ( Dr. Danowitz)

As veterinarians, we are frequently asked by clients about using over-the-counter human medications to manage their pet’s pain and discomfort.  Unfortunately, the answer is almost always, “No, it is just not safe.”  Many common human anti-inflammatory medications can cause serious gastrointestinal ulceration, bleeding, and even kidney failure. Aspirin, Ibuprofen and Naproxen are currently the most frequent medications requiring hospitalization of pets as result of well-intentioned pet owners not realizing how dangerous these drugs can be.



ASPIRIN (acetylsalicylic acid)

Aspirin is probably the most common human medication that we are asked about, and that owners go ahead and administer to their pets without consulting us first.  Aspirin inhibits an enzyme called cyclooxygenase, which is involved in the production of inflammatory chemicals called prostaglandins. Unfortunately there are lots of different cyclooxygenase enzymes that perform different functions in the body, and aspirin affects them all.  Although administering aspirin to your dog (attempting to treat arthritis, for example) may result in mild pain relief, it is frequently associated with the following side effects:

  1. Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
  2. Stomach or intestinal ulceration and bleeding, which can lead to decreased appetite, vomiting, and  black, tarry stool referred to as “melena”
  3. Reduced blood supply the kidney, possibly leading to kidney failure
  4. Reduced ability to clot blood.

Whether an aspirin is buffered or not makes no difference to the dog or cat. A study performed at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine published in 1999 compared the effects on the stomach and intestine between buffered aspirin and 2 veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, Rimadyl and Etogesic.  Different dogs were given these three medications and then their stomachs and intestines were examined with an endoscope at certain intervals after administration. Of the dogs that received buffered aspirin, 100% experienced significant stomach and intestinal bleeding. Very few of the dogs that received the either of the two veterinary drugs sustained any bleeding, and when present it was mild compared to the aspirin group.

Aspirin was once believed to be an adequate OTC pain reliever for our canine companions, and so-called “dog aspirin” can still be found on the shelves at some pet stores. Unfortunately, it is not as effective in controlling pain as the veterinary approved drugs and certainly not as safe.

Cats are particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of aspirin. Even small doses can cause fatal reactions.

IBUPROFEN (Advil, Motrin), NAPROXEN (Aleve, Naprosyn)

Available as a human pain-reliever in the US since 1974, Ibuprofen is one of the most common items found in the medicine cabinets across the country.  Like aspirin, Ibuprofen and Naproxen are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase. Both of these medications are even MORE toxic than aspirin to dogs, and incredibly toxic to cats.  The side effects of ibuprofen and naproxen include:

  1. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or inappetence
  2. Stomach or intestinal ulceration and bleeding, which can lead to decreased appetite, vomiting, and  black, tarry stool referred to as “melena”
  3. Kidney Failure
  4. Neurological Signs: tremors, seizures, coma

Treatment for Ibuprofen / Naproxen ingestion depends on the dosage received, species, timing of the event, and other factors, but can include: inducing vomiting, administering a compound called activated charcoal to prevent continued absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, hospitalization and IV fluid diuresis, as well as supportive care for vomiting, stomach and intestinal ulceration, and decreased appetite.  Without prompt veterinary care, administration of Ibuprofen to your dog or cat could result in death.

It is so difficult to see our beloved pets in pain, and it is human nature to want to relieve them of any discomfort. The veterinary industry has seen tremendous advancements in different treatment modalities to combat pain control over the past 5-10 years and not all involve medications. (Ask us about K-Laser therapy). We have been able to greatly improve the quality of life of our patients.  If you feel that your pet is in pain, please call one of our veterinarians to discuss the many treatment options or schedule an examination. Please always consult us before administering any human medications, or animal medications not previously prescribed specifically for your pet!


Billy Danowitz  DVM

Your pets in 2015! ( Dr. Weiner)

 Hello readers, I hope you all had a wonderful holiday season.  Now that the season has passed and we have bid farewell to 2014, it is time to set our sights on 2015.   While I am sure all of you have been faithfully following your personal resolutions, might I suggest that you make a few for your pets as well.  Here is a list of suggestions sure to make this a happy and healthy year for your pet as well.


1) Have a consistent diet plan

Over 50% of U.S. pets are considered overweight or obese by their veterinarians.  Carrying this extra weight around has more consequences than just affecting how your little ones look in a swimsuit. Overweight pets are more prone to diseases like arthritis, diabetes, breathing difficulties and even cancer.  In addition, a fit pet is a happy pet, who can keep up with you and all your activities.  What better time to start a weight loss plan than early in the New Year? Try to exercise with your pet each day.  You can always start slowly with a steady walk for a short period of time and later adjust to an intensity or time that fits you and your pet best.  Also, try to actually measure your pet’s food for each meal.  It is hard to lose weight when foods are freely available all day or “eyeballing” the portion poured into a bowl.  Start with an 8-ounce cup and measure how much your pet is currently eating on a daily basis.  Based on that information and your pet’s current weight, your veterinarian can help you establish the proper ration.  Weight loss is never easy, but I have faith that you can do it.  After all, the rewards for you and your companion include a longer and happier time together.


2) Find a fun activity to do with your pet

I am a runner and have always dreamed of having a dog that could run with me on those lonely early morning jogs.   Conveniently, I live near a dog-friendly beach that allows access to leashed pets.  I have two dogs so what could be better? Except dear readers, while my two canine companions are quite athletic, they are also pint-sized.  Thus, they are not really cut out for the long distance jogs that I like to take.  Does this mean that we can’t play?  In the words of my toddler, “Goodness No!”  It just means that we need to find a fun activity that suits us both.  For some dogs it may be daily walks to the park or coffee shop.  Others may enjoy cuddling while you read a book by the fireplace.  Or perhaps, you could enjoy a game of frisbee every so often.  However you spend time with your pet, it is important to reinforce the bond you share, as this will yield many long-term advantages.  Several medical studies that have proven the health benefits attained by people who spend time interacting with their pets.  These include reduced stress, lower blood pressure and decreases in anxiety or depression.  And, in my experience pets who receive increased levels of exercise and attention tend to exhibit far less undesirable behaviors.  There is an old adage that most often rings true, especially in this busy world, “a tired pet is a happy owner.”  So be sure to get out there and spend some quality time with your little one!


3) Don’t forget those pearly whites!

Bad breath is the worst!  Not only can be it be an unpleasant surprise when your little one wants to give you a kiss, but it can be an indication of infection deep inside the gums.  This type of infection causes a great deal of pain and can even damage critical organs like the heart, kidneys or liver.  Even though many dogs and cats may seem to have adapted to the discomfort of having dental disease, they will be much happier and healthier if we are able to resolve the infection completely.  Countless clients have told me how much better their little ones feel and act after a dental procedure.  Most say that their pets start acting like puppies or kittens again shortly after the procedure.   How cool is that?  I am talking about a literal fountain of youth, fresh breath, and increased comfort and happiness.  “What could be better?” you may ask.  Well, February is National Pet Dental Health Month, and Ocean County Veterinary Hospital is offering a promotion to help you celebrate and save money on dental services and products.  So let’s keep those whites pearly, guys!


4) Update your pet’s ID information

The statistics on pet loss in this country are quite sobering.  The American Humane Association estimates that over 10 million dogs and cats are lost or stolen each year in the United States.   In addition, they estimate that one in three pets will become lost at some point in its life.  That’s a huge number! I personally have six pets (two dogs and four cats) that could potentially wander from the house which means that, statistically, two of them could become lost at any time.  This is unacceptably high for my family, and I am sure for many of you as well.  It is important to take precautions to avoid loss of your pet, but accidents happen to everyone.  As such, it is prudent to increase the chances of recovering your companion if he or she becomes lost.   The ASPCA reports that for dogs entering shelters, 26% are returned to previous owners, while 31% are euthanized.  The numbers are even dire for cats where less than 5% are returned to previous owners and 41% are euthanized.  There are a few things that you can do to increase the odds of recovery should your pet become lost.  Microchipped and properly registered pets are much more likely to be returned to their homes.  Statistics show that 52% of lost dogs and 38% of lost cats that have been microchipped are reunited with their owners.  Now you may be wondering why these numbers aren’t closer to 100%.  The reason is that many owners forget to register or update their contact information with the company that hosts the microchip database! You do know what this means, right?  First, get all of your pets microchipped.  Second, make sure you register your contact information for each pet that you own.  Lastly, to be extra safe, make sure your pets have an additional form of identification such as a tags and a collar which would be visible if anyone finds your pet.  The shelters cannot help you find your pet if no one brings them there.  Without external identification, some well-meaning Good Samaritan may think your little one does not have a responsible owner and take them in as his own.  Once you have followed these steps, I recommend having your pet’s microchip verified yearly by your vet (this is a quick and easy process).  Be sure that your most recent address and contact information is registered in the microchip database.  As my grandma used to say, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of care.”   Not to mention the pain it saves!


5) Make a well-check appointment for all your pets

Except for some parrots and tortoises, our pets age more quickly than we do. They pack a lot of life into a shorter time span.  So, it is important that you bring your little one in for regular wellness examinations at least once a year.  As they become more advanced in age, we recommend twice-yearly visits.  Regular check-ups can help us detect certain abnormalities before they become major problems.   Medical conditions like obesity, diabetes, dental problems, kidney disease, arthritis and even some types of blindness, can be more properly treated or reversed if detected early. In addition, these regular visits allow our healthcare team to record even slight changes, which may become important later on.   Make a resolution to schedule your pet’s wellness exam in a timely manner.


I hope these New Year’s recommendations have been a helpful inspiration.  From all of us here at the family of Ocean County Veterinary Hospitals, we wish you a blessed and fruitful 2015.


Dr. Zach Weiner

“Brumation” or Hibernation in Reptiles (Dr. Christine Boss)

As the daylight gets shorter and our homes get cooler, a natural process begins in many captive snake, lizard, turtle and tortoise species. In winter months, some reptiles undergo “brumation”, which is similar to a hibernation period. Many reptiles will go weeks without interest in eating and some go into a trance that can be alarming to owners.

This phenomenon occurs because reptiles are “cold blooded”, or more accurately, “ectothermic “. They rely on heat sources in the environment to warm them, in order to perform their bodily functions. A COLD reptile has DECREASED: metabolism, immune function and ability to digest food. As a defensive mechanism, in the cooler months, reptiles take cover and empty their bellies for a long, cold, winter of dormancy. Brumation is also necessary for reproduction in some species, which is the most common reason for people to purposefully hibernate their reptiles.

 How can I tell if this is happening to my pet?

• Decreased appetite

• Less activity and hunting drive

• Hiding on the cool side of the enclosure • Excessive sleeping • Change in color (darker due to cold temperature) • Mild weight loss

 How long can this go on?

Some snakes require a 3-4 month brumation period without food for reproduction. Reptiles can become anorexic for amazing lengths of time, but that does not mean it is healthy.

 How can you know your pet isn’t  sick?

• Please don’t hesitate to come in for an exam!

There are certain indicators of underlying disease that may only be apparent to the trained eye.

• Bring in a fresh stool sample. Reptiles get parasites too! They can even get them from their prey; crickets carry pinworms, yuck!

• Bloodwork and/or X-rays may be needed to further evaluate the health of your pet.

• Monitor for other signs of illness:

Does your reptile look thin? Is he dull in color? Does he have poor sheds? Does he have diarrhea?


How can I prevent this? It seems scary.

It’s time to work on your pet’s environment.

1. Buy light timers. Provide 12-14 hours of light a day, all year.

2. Turn up the heat! Even if the lamps are on, the air in your home is cooler. You may want to buy another heat lamp or get the next higher watt bulb. Remember, you need thermometers to know the temperature on both sides of the tank!

3. Reduce ambient lighting. Those tricky instincts seem to pick up lighting in windows nearby too!

4. Don’t skimp on the grub! Make sure you feed your reptiles regularly.


Sometimes, even if we try our hardest, reptiles will still slow down in the winter. If this happens, even if your reptile brumates, don’t panic.

Don’t be tempted to wake up your reptile and feed them! Partially digested food can cause many problems if it sits in a cold reptile for too long.

Instead, modify the light and heat in the tank until your scaley friend wakes up and wants to eat.


If you’re worried your reptile doesn’t have enough fat reserves for prolonged anorexia, see a veterinarian! Actually, it’s more dangerous to have an anorexic overweight reptile, due to a liver disease called, hepatic lipidosis.


Don’t forget there are other healthy insects for insectivores!

Butterworms, reptiworms, dubia roaches, silkworms, hornworms/pinkies (only for larger reptiles) And yes, you can buy insects online.


What else to expect for wintering reptiles:

• Poor shedding. You will need to increase humidity and remember regular baths. Don’t ignore retained shed, that’s how you can lose a finger!

• UVB bulbs need to be changed every 6 months, even if they still work! That’s especially important in the winter, when our pets don’t get the chance to sunbathe.


Good luck and Happy Holidays! from Dr. Christine Boss and everyone at Ocean County Veterinary Hospital.







What’s the big deal about eating chocolate? ( by Dr. Moreira)

It is hard to believe, but summer is already over, and the holidays are right around the corner.  Of course, with Halloween and other holidays soon to follow, baking and gift giving season has begun. As one of the most beloved desserts and snack foods in the world, chocolate is sure to abound in every household.  But this treat, delicious as it may be, can be extremely harmful to our adored pets.  Even though it is a well -known fact for some of us, we may still sneak an Oreo or two to our dogs and cats and maybe even some Hershey’s chocolate.  How can they be denied the satisfaction of such tasty treat? While there are not always toxic effects associated with the ingestion of very small amounts of chocolate, a tasty treat could turn into a real Halloween nightmare!

What part of chocolate makes it harmful for some animals?

Many dogs have indiscriminate eating behaviors. (I’m sure many of you have a dog that has eaten a sock or two in the past!) Because of this common trait, chocolate toxicity generally occurs more frequently in dogs than in cats. The chemical that causes all of the problems in dogs is called methylxanthine. Some types and brands of chocolate contain more of this chemical than others. For example, baker’s chocolate has extremely high amounts and is very dangerous compared to most inexpensive candy bars. In animals, this chemical causes extreme stimulation of the nervous system, increased urination and dangerous effects on the heart. It can cause arrhythmias, or disturbances to the normal rate and rhythm of the heart that may be life threatening. The increased stimulation of the nervous system puts dogs at risk for seizures.


What are the signs of chocolate toxicity in dogs?

If you suspect that your dog has ingested any chocolate, it is recommended that you contact a veterinarian for further advice. Signs of chocolate toxicity include vomiting, hyperactivity, restlessness, high heart rate, and high respiratory rate. Some dogs may even develop pancreatitis, which is an inflammation of the pancreas, several days after ingestion of chocolate, even if they have undergone treatment. Clinical signs of pancreatitis include abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Depending on the severity of the reaction, dogs with pancreatitis may require hospitalization because it too can be life threatening.


How is chocolate ingestion and toxicity treated?

It depends on what signs your dog is showing and how much chocolate your dog consumed. Methylxanthine is specifically found in cocoa so generally speaking, the higher percent cocoa in the chocolate, the higher concentration of methylxanthine it contains. If your dog is brought to see a veterinarian within a short period of time of the ingestion, the doctor may elect to induce vomiting in your pet.  Depending on the circumstances, treatment can range from monitoring your pet at home to having your pet hospitalized in the ICU and on IV fluids and medications. While hospitalized, your pet’s heart rhythm can be monitored for life threatening arrhythmias and for seizure activity. If there is any question that your pet consumed chocolate, please contact your veterinarian right away.


How do I prevent chocolate toxicity?

Of course, the first preventative step is to lock away the chocolate-containing candy! Due to their great sense of smell, dogs can sniff out tasty treats, making them susceptible to ingestion and toxicity so be sure it is well out of reach or in a cabinet that can’t be opened easily.

Other household products do contain methylxanthine and may cause the same serious reactions in your pets. These include: diet pills, fatigue reduction pills, tea leaves, coffee products, and colas. If in doubt call your veterinarian!

In addition, please keep in mind that some “sugar free” chocolates and candies do have another chemical compound called xylitol, which is EXTREMELY toxic to pets. Xylitol is most commonly found in sugar-free products and leads to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).  Xylitol is quickly absorbed once ingested and can cause signs within an hour or sooner.   Pets that have ingested the chemical typically require hospitalization.

We at OCVH, FVH, and NPVH are always available to help you with any concerns you may have with regard to your pet’s health. Never hesitate to contact us with your questions!


Jessica Moreira DVM

Is your dog having knee problems? (by Dr. Jenna Koenigstein)

Medial Patellar Luxation (MPL) in Dogs

“Trick knees”, more properly termed medial patellar luxations, are a relatively common finding on physical examinations here at OCVH and in most veterinary practices of small breed dogs.  In many cases, it is an incidental finding during a routine exam, while in other cases it is found when a dog comes in for sudden limping.  When found on routine physical exam, veterinarians will mention it as a finding but may not go into much detail since it is not usually a cause for concern. But since it is so common, here is some additional information about the condition and what, if anything should be done about it.

What is it?

The patella is the fancy name for the knee cap.  It is attached to the tendon of the quadriceps muscle in the front of the thigh and sits in a groove of the femur (thigh bone). The function of the patella is to act like a pulley and to facilitate the bending actions (flexing and extending) of the knee.  The term “patellar luxation” means that the knee cap has slipped out of its normal position within the groove of the femur, most often toward opposite leg (medially).  Sometimes it may slip toward the outward direction, which would be called lateral patellar luxation, but this is much less common.  While patellar luxation can be seen in any breed, smaller breed dogs are much more prone to it.  About 50% of affected dogs have the abnormality in both knees.

What causes it?

Medial patellar luxation (MPL) is most often due to a congenital (inherited) abnormality and is usually present from a young age.  The groove in which it resides may be too shallow or an abnormal rotation of the shin bone may cause the attachment of the tendon to be more to the side.  In either case, the patella is tends to pop out of place with normal motion of the leg. Trauma or injury can also cause luxation but this is relatively rare.

Clinical signs

In most cases, there is no obvious sign to the owner that a pet has this condition.  Some owners will note that the pet will occasionally hop or skip on one leg when running and then return to normal without ever acting painful, indicating that the patella has shifted out of groove but then popped back into place.  Some dogs may become lame during exercise if the patella shifts and does not return to normal position, causing discomfort and inflammation. Long term effects of frequent displacements can lead to arthritis in some pets and may make them more prone to injury of ligaments in the knee.

Types of Luxation

Patellar luxation is graded on a scale of 1 to 4, with higher numbers indicating more severe luxation.

Grade I – Patella can be manually moved out of groove during examination but immediately returns to normal position.   These dogs are unlikely to show lameness.

Grade II – Patella is able to be easily manipulated out of place but does not return to correct location once pressure removed.  These cases are more likely to show mild signs of lameness.

Grade III – Patella is always luxated, can be slipped back into place but immediately re-luxates.  These dogs show more persistent lameness.

Grade IV – Patella always out of groove and cannot be put back in place.  These dogs will have significant lameness and cannot straighten knee. They may have bow-legged appearance.


MPL can be easily diagnosed on routine orthopedic examination.  Radiographs or other imaging modalities may be needed to determine the extent of abnormalities (structural deformities, depth of femoral groove, etc). 



Those pets with Grade I or II luxation that rarely or never show any clinical signs are unlikely to need surgical treatment.  For those with Grade II or greater that show more persistent lameness, surgery can help to correct the underlying abnormalities.  If both legs are equally affected, most surgeons recommend correcting one leg at a time and allowing time for the first to heal prior to correcting the second (at least 8 weeks).  The exception to this may be a dog that is still growing as correcting one at a time may lead to conformation changes if the bones are still growing.


Trochlear Modification – this surgical correction is meant for those small breed dogs with a shallow groove.  The goal is to deepen the groove by removing some of the bone below the cartilage, then replacing the cartilage to keep the smooth surface.


Tibial Tuberosity Transposition – this is a more complicated surgery which is meant to change the alignment of where the patellar tendon attaches to the top of the tibia (shin bone) to prevent the patella from being pulled to the side.  The tibial tuberosity (crest where the ligament attaches) is removed and pinned in a different location to adjust the pull on the patella.  In some severe cases, the entire bone must be cut and realigned.


Post- operative care

In simple cases of trochlear modification, 3-4 weeks of rest is sufficient for recovery.  With more complicated surgery, a longer period of confinement, possibly up to 8 weeks or more, may be recommended.  Some of these dogs also benefit from physical therapy.


Need More Information?

If you suspect your dog may have patellar luxation or another orthopedic problem please contact one of our veterinarians or schedule an examination.


Jenna Koenigstein DVM



Thinking About Getting a Reptile? (Dr. Golodik)

OCVH recommends that when thinking about adding a reptile as a family pet there are many things to consider. To avoid common problems ask yourself these important questions before setting foot inside a pet store and making an impulsive purchase. What is the life expectancy of this animal? How big do they get? What kind of enclosure do they require to keep them safe and comfortable? What is their normal behavior and temperament? Is this a good pet for a household with young children? What are the costs of keeping this kind of a pet? Do they have any special health concerns? And most important, have you done enough research to be confident that this future pet will be a cherished and welcome addition to your home and your life?


The popularity of reptiles as pets is growing and so is the diversity of available reptilian species. Unfortunately, some retailers may not provide sufficient information about appropriate care of the reptiles they are selling. For this reason it is best to consult a veterinarian who has a special interest and training in reptilian care and diseases before and immediately after you purchase your new pet.


The most common causes of illness in reptiles are feeding an improper or imbalanced diet, and poor husbandry. Husbandry is the care and management of your pet and its environment. This includes temperature levels, lighting, enclosure size and safety, ventilation, bedding, humidity levels and sources of water. Certain diurnal species, that is, reptiles that are active during the daytime, require UVA/UVB rays. These rays naturally come from the sun and are essential for calcium metabolism and overall health. In captivity, these rays need to be artificially supplemented with special UV light bulbs. Improper levels of this kind of light can lead to bone disease and other illnesses. It is also important to know that UV bulbs lose their strength over time. I have personally measured UV output on new and used bulbs and have found drastic differences. I recommend changing UV bulbs every 4 months in order to make sure your reptilian friend is getting the healthy amount of rays it needs.


You are what you eat! This saying is especially true for our reptilian pets. Certain species eat a steady diet of insects and it is important to make sure those insects are “gut loaded”. Gut loading is a process of feeding the proper nutrients to the prey insects so they are a healthy food source for your pet. Be sure the insects you purchase or raise for your pet’s food satisfy this requirement. Adding supplements to the diet is also important. Calcium is the most common oral supplement and comes in several forms. Dusting prey with a calcium supplement before feeding is an easy way to administer it. The same can be done for reptiles that eat mostly fruits and leafy greens. Many lizards and chelonians (tortoises/turtles) require steady diet of fruits and vegetables. As an owner of one of these reptiles you should be prepared to make lots of salads! Also, using the proper multivitamin supplement several times per week can help ensure good health.


Shedding of skin and scales is a normal process for all reptiles. Around the time a reptile is getting ready to shed, be prepared to see changes in behavior and coloration. For example, some will not be as hungry or as active and may retreat or hide. Typically scale color will become dull. In turtles and tortoises, the skin over the head, neck, and legs sheds in pieces. The layer covering the boney scoots of the shell will start to peel off. Lizards tend to shed in small sheets and over time will rub off pieces of their outer skin. Snakes will often shed their skin in one piece; however, they may shed in sections if the humidity is not right. Difficulty shedding or “dysecdysis” is a problem we veterinarians see very frequently. Retained shed over the eyes, nostrils, toes, and tails is common. If old shed is left on, over time it can cause serious eye damage and can kill tissues by strangulating the blood supply. This is a major concern during the shedding period. In general, DO NOT pull shed if it is not ready to come off easily. This can lead to serious damage to the underlying tissues. Consult our exotic veterinarians when in doubt. Learning what’s normal and what’s not normal for your species of pet is essential. 


For the first time reptile owner I recommend corn snakes, ball pythons, bearded dragons, and leopard geckos. These are what I would consider good “starter reptiles” as they are easier to care for and generally heartier. Newly acquired pets should be examined by one of our exotic veterinarians as soon as possible to be sure there are no underlying problems. Our veterinarians will discuss all the important aspects of diet and husbandry so that you get off to the right start. Just as with cats and dogs, we advise examinations on an annual basis and whenever you notice symptoms of illness or changes in behavior.


A fun way to learn about what kinds of reptiles are commonly available as pets is to go to a reptile show. The New York Reptile Expo is being held in White Plains, NY, on Sunday, September 7, 2014. Hundreds of breeders and vendors will exhibit pets and products. Lots of valuable information is available and it is really fun too!


If you are really considering getting a reptilian pet it is important to be honest with yourself. What commitment in time, care and money are you willing to devote to have a healthy, happy pet? If you have questions or concerns, please call us first. It is a very satisfying and enjoyable experience when you are adequately informed and prepared. Think, learn, plan and go for it!


Daniel Golodik DVM